IDEA 2004 defines
physical education as: physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor
skills, dance, aquatics, individual group games and sports, and
lifetime activities. When establishing programs, one area that seems
more difficult than the others to accommodate is aquatics, because
many schools do not have use of a pool.
This article will present aquatic activities that can be taught
without the use of a traditional pool, so instructors can have an
adapted physical activity program that addresses aquatics. Below,
I've outlined 10 inclusive, cooperative aquatic activities that
are a fun way to promote physical fitness, swimming skills and education,
as well as motor development in a cooler environment.
A land-based aquatic program not only provides the potential for
teaching aquatics skills and activities without a pool, but also
allows the instructor to instill physical education awareness to
promote lifelong habits and safety.
In reflection of the past school year, I've provided a list of
the main topics covered (October to April) by pelinks4u.
These articles address a wide and in-depth variety of interesting
ideas, programs, and strategies for working with students who have
disabilities. Take a few minutes and reflect; it will be time well
Also included are supportive web sites for the topics being discussed,
an interesting legal story, and an article about the new emphasis
for assessment accountability for students with disabilities. Best
wishes on an excellent summer for everyone.
Adapted PE Editor
LOOK AT LAST SCHOOL YEAR
activities for aquatics, gymnastics, large group activities,
to help pass the Adapted Physical Education National Standards
2004 final version report.
assessing students with disabilities.
||7 pains you
on Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Fragile X, and Dwarfism.
and physical activity recommendations for Cerebral Palsy, Spina
Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury, Cystic Fibrosis, Scoliosis, Juvenile
Arthritis, Seizures, and Osteoporosis.
||The do's and
don'ts for exercise induced asthma.
for a successful dance program.
activities with adaptations.
for individuals with disabilities.
for prior, during, and after assessment.
Rate Zone adjustments for disabilities.
mandates toward assessment.
personal success stories.
||10 ways children
can become more resilient.
a resistance training program for cognitive disabilities.
lesson plans for Asperger's syndrome.
|| An overview
of Multiple Sclerosis.
Note: only some of the main topics within
each issue were highlighted, therefore you should take a few minutes
to explore the archives more closely. Pay particular attention to
the numerous supportive websites, resources, and references. Go
visit these great issues!
EMPHASIS FOR ASSESSMENT ACCOUNTABILITY AND STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
By John H. Hager
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services U.S. Department
Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings
announced new regulations under No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
allowing states to test certain students with disabilities using
an alternate assessment that more appropriately aligns with their
needs and yields more meaningful results for schools and parents.
The new regulations provide states and schools with greater flexibility
by allowing them to more accurately evaluate the students' academic
progress, and tailor instruction based on their individual needs.
"Through No Child Left Behind, we're
continuing to raise the bar and improve the way we educate and assess
students with disabilities," Secretary Spellings said. "These
students are capable of achieving high academic standards, and now
states and schools can be better attuned to their needs. No Child
Left Behind has put the needs of students with disabilities front
and center, and this regulation helps continue to drive the field
forward in developing better tests for students with disabilities."
Secretary Spellings also announced that the U.S. Department of
Education will provide $21.1 million in grant funds for technical
assistance as states develop new assessments for students with disabilities.
The Department also released written guidance to states on the implementation
of the new regulations, offering recommendations on issues such
as how students with disabilities can be appropriately identified
for this assessment.
Under the new regulations, states may develop modified academic
achievement standards based on grade-level content - and alternate
assessments based on those standards - for students with disabilities
who are capable of achieving high standards but may not reach grade
level in the same timeframe as their peers.
States may count proficient and advanced test scores on these
alternate assessments for up to 2.0 percent (approximately 20 percent
of students with disabilities) of all students assessed when calculating
adequate yearly progress (AYP) under NCLB. These regulations build
on the flexibility provided for students with the most significant
cognitive disabilities, which allows states to count up to 1.0 percent
of proficient and advanced assessment scores based on alternate
achievement standards toward AYP calculation.
The fact sheet, Measuring
the Achievement of Students with Disabilities, provides
helpful information about the 2 percent regulations.
As a student when training to be a Physical Education teacher,
you cannot qualify as a teacher if you are not in good physical
condition. We accommodate students with various disabilities
in our PE classes by modifying activities, and rightly so.
I am interested in opinions regarding teaching with a disability
(e.g. if the teacher suffers an injury that affects him/her
long term)? Does this mean that we are no longer eligible
to teach PE? Do you think this is a form of discrimination?
Please answer in the forum.
Land Aquatic Activities
I encourage instructors to be creative,
modify, and allow for more choices than what is presented in each
activity. The following suggestions can not accommodate for every
situation. As most would probably agree, the environment, students,
and personnel are ever changing, therefore being flexible, adaptable,
and allowing options, make for good teaching.
Remember water activities may need additional
considerations such as, a) keeping hard surfaces dry or slip free;
b) if activities are held in the grass and students are not wearing
shoes, make sure no sharp objects can injure the students; c) if
activities are held outside, sun-screen should be applied, shade
provided, and proper clothing worn; d) know the local weather conditions;
e) unused equipment should be kept away from the activity; f) glass
or breakable items should be prohibited in the activity area; g)
make sure wheelchairs and braces are appropriate for water use;
h) all equipment, toys, and the activity area is allowed to dry
out effectively; and i) after water activity, use plenty of lotion
for yourself and the students skin, and wash hair with a ph balance
Students should be organized in small groups/teams with 4 to 6 people.
The amount of teams will depend on how many ropes and/or slip-&-slides
are available. Students are instructed to pull teammates using a
rope from one end of the slip-&-slide and back. When each member
has successfully completed the task, the game is over. In addition,
everyone should have the opportunity to pull or be pulled by a team
The student being pulled
has the choice of standing, sitting, or lying down, depending on
their ability level. If a student is unable to grip the rope they
could be pushed instead of pulled. Also, more than one student can
push or pull teammates from one end and back. Depending on team
skill level, some teams may have more students. Teams may also compete
against each other or for their own individual best time.
Make sure students that are pulling do not slip/fall, and students
being pulled do not get rope burned or dragged off the slip-&-slip.
If a student being pulled loses their balance, the pullers will
need to stop movement, and students being pushed, pulled, and turned
around at the return, proceed at a pace that does not result in
Ropes, poles, or hula hoops for pulling and slip-&-slides.
Students are to cast/throw
magnets attached to fishing pole lines into portable play pools
where small toys, coins, or other interesting objects can be retrieved
and returned/released (note: magnets attract iron, so toys or objects
that are not attractive need some type of metal attached). Casting,
catching, retrieving, and releasing may be an individual, cooperative,
or competitive game activity.
can practice the skills required (grip, release/cast, aim, reeling,
etc.) to perform the activity and in a given amount of time. Count
the number of successful attempts. Cooperative game situations may
consist of some students being designated "casters/catchers,"
some "retrievers," and some "returners" of all
the toys caught back to the pool. Using this format, or having each
team member perform all the skill requirements, allows for competition.
Students should have
choices in how far they can cast, which fishing poles they can use,
and the toys they can retrieve. Further, fishing pole length/weight,
reel (manual, automatic), weight/size of the magnet, and the size/amount
of retrievable toys will also challenge skill abilities. For example,
if a student is near the pool, using a longer liter pole that has
an automatic reel, heavier magnet, and many toys to retrieve, the
task is much easier.
Allow an ample perimeter between students during casting. When returning
toys, all casting must stop, and do not let students cast toward
Fishing poles, magnets, retrievable toys, and portable plastic or
are grouped into pairs, with one student playing the role of the
"rescuer" and one the "victim." Students will
take turns throwing a ring buoy (rescuer) to their partner (victim)
that should be pulled the length of the slip-&-slide. Partners
are timed from when the rescuer grabs the ring buoy until the victim
reaches the end (safety) of the slip-&-slide. Rescuers should
throw the buoy past the victim and slowly pull (by rope) the buoy
back to the victim.
Throwing and guiding
the buoy back to the victim should first be practiced with a target.
In some situations, there may be two rescuers with one throwing
and guiding the buoy, and then both helping pull the victim to safety.
The student victim being pulled can sit or lay down while holding
the ring buoy. If a student has difficulty holding the buoy, a harness
can be used, or one of the rescuers can help the victim put the
harness on and both be pulled to safety. The distance between the
rescuer and victim, length of the slip-&-slide, and type of
buoy will change difficulty level.
Rescuers must use caution when throwing the ring buoy, pulling the
victim off the slip-&-slip, and pulling at a speed/direction
that does not jerk/twist the victim. All activity should stop if
the student being pulled becomes twisted or choked by the rope,
ring buoy, or harness.
Ring buoys, rescue tubs (or harnesses), ropes, and slip-&-slides.
Students are organized
into groups according to how many inflatable rafts are available.
Several students per group, should be placed in rafts that are filled
to the top with water. Students are instructed to get all the water
out of their raft as fast as possible. Students may use cups, sponges,
buckets, and/or their hands to splash the water out.
Once all the water
is out, or a set time limit (10 minutes) has expired, the game is
over. Teams may compete or work independently toward emptying the
rafts or lowering the water levels. If rafts are placed near one
another, students can also try putting water in their opponents'
rafts. The size of the raft, amount of water, extraction method,
and student to raft ratio will change the difficulty level.
For example, if one
team is very efficient, they can be restricted to only using sponges
or spoons to empty their raft. Whatever method used to equalize
groups or make a particular group more efficient, make sure students
are always safe and enjoying the activity.
Water levels of as little as four inches can cause drowning, so
be alert for face submersion. Throwing water can also choke or hurt
the eyes of students. If students are in cold water for long periods,
they can also get hyperthermia.
Sponges, spoons, scoops, ladles, cups, pails, buckets and inflatable
IF YOU CAN
Students are to pull (prone) or push (spine) with their arms/legs
on scooter boards while moving through a water obstacle course (water
sprinklers, cool zones, splash balls, etc.). Scooter boards roll
best on smooth surfaces, such as concrete or flattened blacktops.
Students can practice arm/leg propulsion and navigation individually
or with a partner, and teams can be organized for a competitive
race. Having a variety of paths, interesting toys to venture after,
and/or competition may encourage more movement. The length/width
of the obstacle course, paths, nature of obstacles, amount of toys
to recover, as well as surface and water conditions will all change
the level of difficulty. Moving around on scooter boards with water
splashing everywhere is a fun way to improve upper/lower body strength
and swimming skill patterns in a cool environment.
Some types of water sprinklers/toys have long arms that can harm
students. Slipping/stumbling, and students colliding may also be
Water sprinklers, splash balls, cool zones, wiggle worms, and scooter
Students are matched
up, or put in small groups. Within each pair or group of students,
some should be designated "bubble blowers" and others
"popper." Students blowing bubbles work to have their
teammate(s) "pop" all the bubbles while standing or sitting
in a plastic or inflatable pool/raft.
The team that pops the
most bubbles in a given amount of time wins. Some students may need
a racquet (badminton, tennis) to help pop bubbles, or an automatic
bubble blowing machine for making bubbles. Distances between teammates,
devices for making bubbles, and how students will pop bubbles will
vary the difficulty.
Bubbles should avoid eye contact. Limit team size. Students in the
water should be aware of their surroundings to avoid hitting, pushing,
or knocking down their classmates.
Bubble blowing toys and portable plastic or inflatable pools/rafts.
| HUMAN BOWLING
Students are given the
challenge of knocking down as many objects (pin, bottles, toys,
etc.) as they can, with their hands or feet, as they slide down
the slip-&-slide. Objects can be placed along side, or at the
end of the slip-&-slide. If students cannot slide the full length,
they may be permitted to crawl or roll to the end.
Students' scores are
based on how many objects they knockdown in 10 attempts. Placing
objects farther away from the slide, using different sized objects,
and the amount of objects to knock down will very the difficulty
level. As an alternative to knocking objects down, students can
try grabbing/catching objects during the slide.
Make sure students do not run down the slide or leave their feet
during takeoff. All objects should be made of soft material.
Plastic bowling pins, plastic bottles, toys, and slip-&-slides.
| WHO IS THE
Students placed in small
cooperative groups are challenged to design and build the best cool-zone.
With some PVC pipes, u-joints, duct tape and a water hose, students
can create to their hearts are content. Temperature readings are
taken to determine which cool-zone is the coldest. After cooperative
creative competition, students can enjoy playing in their newly
Teacher, paraprofessional, and staff should supervise construction.
PVC pipes (pipes need many small holes drilled), plenty of duct
tape, end plugs, and water hoses.
Students are placed on opposite sides of a net and instructed to
kick or throw all the balls (splash balls, water balloons, sponge
balls) from their side to their opponents' side. The activity works
best if there are more balls to kick than balls to throw.
After a particular
time limit has passed, each side counts all the balls on their side.
The team with the least balls wins. Students with limited abilities
can have designated balls (red sponge balls) for their use, or a
buddy to assist in reaching/grabbing, throwing, or kicking balls.
There should also be means for accessing water near the playing
Large water balloons should not be used. Limit kicking force, and
throwing should be underhand.
Various sizes and colors of splash balls, water balloons, sponge
balls, containers (buckets, trash cans) for holding water, and badminton
Students are organized into one or two large groups and instructed
to throw balls or toys into water filled rafts. All the balls and
toys start from inside hula-hoops, boxes, or special zones before
being tossed in the rafts. After all the balls are thrown into the
rafts, students climb into the rafts to throw/return balls back
to their original starting position. The activity can be timed for
improvement or teams can compete. Certain colored balls or toys
can be designated for different areas. Having students work cooperatively
an safely, while getting each other plenty wet, will make the activity
more successful and fun for all students.
In some situations, student should not stand close to the rafts
during bombardment. Light objects should be used as projectiles
and avoid splashing water in teammate’s eyes.
Balls, toys, hula-hoops, boxes, tubs and inflatable rafts.
Activities for kids with learning disabilities: making wise choices.
Legal Story - The ongoing legal battle waged by Tatyana McFadden,
a 17-year-old wheelchair racer who wants her results to count for
Atholton's track and field team, has been met with disdain by the
local track community, including some of the girls on her team.